# Summary Statistics and Student Results

The Summary Statistics and Student Results reports become available after students have completed a homework assignment or quiz. These reports provide student performance data for a particular homework assignment or quiz. This information can help instructors quickly capture insights into student performance and how well students are grasping the material.

## Viewing Summary Statistics Report

1. Go to the Course page and click on the assignment or quiz for which you would like to view Summary Statistics.
Note: The Summary Statistics report is associated with a particular homework assignment or quiz.

2. Click on Assignment/Quiz Menu in the upper right corner and select Summary Statistics.

At the top of the Summary Statistics page there are a number of parameters that can be modified to customize the report. If default parameters are changed the Show report button should be used to update the report. The Recalculate now button will appear under certain conditions, this button should be used if new student attempts have recently taken place.

## Assignment/Quiz Statistics (top section of page)

The Assignment/Quiz Statistics section provides statistical analysis of overall student performance on the assignment or quiz. Some of the statistical quantities are applicable for both assignments and quizzes, while others are applicable for quizzes only.

The following statistical measures are provided:

Number of complete graded first attempts: The number of students who have submitted the assignment or quiz.

Total number of complete graded attempts: If multiple attempts are allowed for the assignment or quiz, this number will be larger than that shown above as it includes all graded attempts.

Average score: The arithmetic mean of all student scores.
(If multiple attempts are allowed, then average score of first attempts, average score of all attempts, average score of last attempts, and average score of highest graded attempts will show different meaningful values.)

Median score: The middle value of all student scores when placed in numerical order. The median is less affected by outliers and skewed data.

Standard deviation: A measure of the spread of scores about the mean.

Score distribution skewness: A measure of the asymmetry of the distribution of scores. Zero implies a perfectly symmetrical distribution.

Score distribution kurtosis: A measure of the flatness of the distribution. A normal bell shaped distribution has a kurtosis of zero. The greater the kurtosis, the more peaked is the distribution without much of a tail on either side.

Coefficient of internal consistency: A measure of whether all the items in the quiz are testing basically the same thing.

Error ratio: An estimate of the percentage of the standard deviation which is due to chance effects rather than to differences in ability between students.

Standard error: (Derived from the error ratio) Estimates how much of the standard deviation is due to chance effects and is a measure of the uncertainty in any given student’s score. If the same student took an equivalent quiz, his or her score could be expected to lie within ±SE of the previous score.

## Assignment/Quiz Structure Analysis (lower section of page)

This section lists all the problems in the assignment or quiz and provides statistics pertaining to overall student performance on individual problems.

Question # and Question name: The number and name of the particular problem being analyzed.

Attempts: The number of students who attempted the particular problem.

Mean Score: The mean student score on the particular problem.

Standard Deviation: A measure of the spread of scores about the mean for the particular problem.

Intended Weight: The weight of the particular problem expressed as a percentage of the total possible points.

Effective Weight: An estimate of the weight the particular problem actually has in contributing to the overall spread of scores. The intended weight and effective weight are intended to be compared. If the effective weight is greater than the intended weight it shows the problem has a greater share in the spread of scores than may have been intended. If it is less than the intended weight it shows the problem is not having as much effect in spreading out the scores as was intended.

Discrimination index: The correlation between the score for the particular problem and the score for the whole quiz. For a good problem, you hope the students who score highly on the problem are the same students who score highly on the whole quiz. The higher the number the stronger the correlation.

Discriminative efficiency: This statistic attempts to estimate how good the discrimination index is relative to the difficulty of the question.

## Viewing Student Results Report

### Method 1 - Access Student Results via the Course Page

1. Go to the Course page and click on the assignment or quiz for which you would like to view Student Results.
Note: The Student Results report is associated with a particular homework assignment or quiz.

2. Click on Assignment/Quiz Menu in the upper right corner and select Student Results.

### Method 2 - Access Student Results via the Gradebook Main View Page

1. In the side navigation menu click on Grades (be sure to first click on your course in the side navigation menu).

2. In the navigation tabs (at top) click View, then select the Gradebook sub-menu tab.

3. Click on the assignment or quiz (appearing as a column header) for which you would like to view Student Results.

At the top of the Student Results page there are a number of parameters that can be modified to customize the report. If default parameters are changed the Show report button should be used to update the report.

## Student Results Table

The Student Results table shows homework and quiz results for individual students. Here you’ll find detailed information on how a particular student performed on each problem. You can sort the table data according to any of the column headers. Clicking a column header will toggle between ascending and descending sort order.

The following information pertaining to each student is provided in the table columns:

State: Shows how far along the student is with the assignment or quiz: not started, in progress, or finished.

Started on: The date and time the student started the assignment or quiz.

Completed: The date and time the student submitted the assignment or quiz.

Time taken: The amount of time the student spent on the assignment or quiz.

Score: The student’s overall score on the assignment or quiz.

Q.1, Q.2, Q.3 . . . The student’s score for each problem contained in the assignment or quiz. Next to the student score appears a green check if the answer is fully correct, a black check if partially correct, or a red X if incorrect. Clicking on a particular score will open a new window which displays the problem text along with the student’s answer. Here you’ll also find the link Make comment or override points allowing you to edit the score received for the particular problem and provide feedback to the student on the problem.

Underneath each student’s name a Review attempt link appears. This provides a convenient alternate method for displaying how a particular student performed on each problem using a single scrolling view. Clicking the link will open a new window showing the student’s final answers for all problems along with the problem text and the score received. A Response History section is included showing when the student started the problem, when the student finished the problem, and every correct or incorrect answer the student submitted prior to his or her final answer. The link Make comment or override points is also found in this view.